Linux – Introduction to Shell


This chapter explains Introduction of Shell in Linux.

Shell vs Terminal

The Shell

● Before starting to learn about the Linux command line, we have to know some  terminology and facts.

● The shell is the command line interpreter, meaning that it takes the commands that you  enter and sends them to the operating system  to perform (execute).

● And so to make things clear, The shell is what actually handles the commands.

● The shell is the default interface to Linux 

The Terminal
● On the other hand, The Terminal is just a graphical interface to the shell. In other words, We access the shell through our terminal in a GUI (Graphical User Interface)  environment.
●Historically, The Terminal was a physical device that connects to a computer, usually  over serial cable or modem. Like the picture below
●But nowadays, when someone says a Terminal, he really means a Terminal emulator. The  word emulator here means imitate. That’s to say that it’s a software (Program) that  imitates the physical device that was once called a Terminal.
●People use the two terms (Terminal and Terminal emulator) interchangeably, so don’t get  confused. They mean the same thing nowadays.

Access the Terminal
● The are many different linux distributions out there. And it’s usually an easy task to open the terminal.
● We are going to see how to open the terminal in three different Linux distributions (Ubuntu,Fedora,openSUSE) and  three different Environments (Unity,Gnome,Kde)

Ubuntu (Unity)
● On ubuntu, You can press the shortcut Ctrl + Alt + t to open the terminal
● Or you can press the Dash icon (ubuntu logo) that is present on the tep left corner you your screen. Then type Terminal and you  will find it as shown in the picture below

Fedora (Gnome)
● Move your mouse on the upper left most part of the screen towards the  “Activities”
● Click on it
● Type Terminal and select it OpenSUSE(Kde)
● Open the Main menu (The bottom left icon) Which is like that start menu in  windows.
● You should see it right away. 
● If you didn’t see it, then type terminal on the search field and it will pop  up. 
● It may appear as konsole. Click it anyways.


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